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By the s, a significant number of machine translation engines which Brown et. al () proposed the use of statistical methods in Machine Translations. parse tree into a target-language string by applying stochastic operations . Once both finish, the uni-directional encoder layers start computing .

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People employed in retail between and People employed in public services between and People employed in tourism between and Unemployed between and People employed in industry compared with those in tourism in For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students Look at these sentences and decide which object is being described in each one. Use the words in bold to help you. You will find the objects hidden in the word grid at the bottom of the page. The most important part of this object is a strip of two different metals, one on top of the other. As they heat up, both metals expand, but one does it faster than the other.

The strip bends and connects with a switch, which turns off the power supply. When the strip cools down, the metals contract and the switch is disconnected. A disc inserted into the object spins quickly. At the same time a thin beam of light strikes the disc and converts digital symbols into sounds. These sounds can be increased or decreased in volume by means of a button or dial.

This can be released by pushing or squeezing a button which opens a valve. When the liquid—gas combination leaves the tube and is mixed with oxygen, it rapidly expands. As it moves forward, air flows over two horizontal sections. A5 it Bccelerales. Light enters the glass section and a small door in the device opens up when a button is pressed.

At the same time, a smaller window called an aperture adjusts itself to control the amount of light. The light is then absorbed by a sheet of plastic coated in a special chemical. It chops or grinds anything it touches, which we can then use to produce soup, sauces and dressing. A small piece of paper is lit with a match.

It burns away until the flame ignites the chemical compound inside a cardboard tube. The result is a display of light and colour. There are nine more objects hidden in the grid. Choose four of them and write a brief description of how they work, using the bold words and expressions above. For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students 1 D Writing a letter A. Below, you will see eleven common situations that people encounter when they are writing a formal letter. Choose the sentence or phrase A, B or C that would be most appropriate in each situation.

You are writing a letter to the headteacher of a school or college, but you don't know their name. How do you begin your letter? Dear Sir 2. You have received a letter from the manager of a company which buys computer components from your company, and you are now replying. What do you say? A Thank you for your letter: 8. Thanks a lot for your letter. It was great to hear from you. You recently stayed in a hotel and were very unhappy with the service you received, You are now writing to the manager. Ihad a horribl time at your hotel recently. I would like to say that I am unhappy about your hotel.

I would like to complain about the service I received at your hotel recently. You have sent a letter of application to a college, together with your curriculum vitae which the college requested. What do you say in the letter to explain that your curriculum vitae is attached?

You asked for my curriculum vitae, so here it is. As you can see, I've enclosed my curriculum vitae. As you requested, lenclose my curriculum vitae. You have applied for a job, but you would like the company to send you more information. What do ou say? A I would be grateful if you would send me more information. I want you to send me more informa tion. C, Send me some more information, if you don't mind. In a letter you have written to a company, you tell them that you expect them to reply. Write back to me soon, please. Please drop me a line soon. La I look forward to hearing from you soon.

In a letter you have written, you want the recipient to do something and are thanking them in advance of their action. A Thank you for your attention in this matter: 3. Thanks for doing something about it. I am gratified that you will take appropriate action. The company you work for has received an order from another company and you are writing to them to acknowledge the order and let them know when you can deliver.

About the order you sent on 12 January for. I would like to remind you of the order you sent on 12 January fair. In a letter, you explain that the recipient can contact you if they want more information. Give me a call if you want some more information. If you would like any more information, please do not hesitate to contact me.

If you would like any more information, why not get in touch? You began a letter with the recipient's name e. How do you end the letter? Best wishes You did not begin the letter with the recipient's name see number 1 above. Yours faith fully B. Yours sincerely C. Best wishes B. Look at these sentences and decide if they are true or false.

Formal letters are always longer than informal letters. In a formal letter it is acceptable to use colloquial English, slang and idioms. In a formal letter it is acceptable to use contractions e. In a formal letter, you should always write the date in full e. Harcourt after your signature at the bottom of the letter. Formal letters do not need to be broken into paragraphs.

It is acceptable to write them as one continuous paragraph. For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students i. Read the text below, in which somebody is trying to decide whether to go straight to university from school, or spend a year travelling around the world. Put their argument into the correct order, using the key words and expressions in italics to help you. The first one and last one have been done for you.

I'm really in two minds about what to do when I leave school. Should I go straight to university or should I spend a year travelling around the world? It is often said that knowledge is the key to power, and I cannot disagree with this. On the one hand, I would experience lots of different cultures. And I'm not alone in this opinion. Many consider a sound career and a good salary to be an important goal. However, it could be argued that I would also meet lots of interesting people while I was travelling. Secondly, if I go straight to university, I'll learn so many things that will help me in my future life.

First of all, there are so many benefits of going straight to university. But I believe that it would be easy to make a bit while I was travelling, giving English lessons or working in hotels and shops. Moreover, I'll be able to take part in the social activities that the university offers, and meet lots of new friends who share the same interests. The most important point is that the sooner I get my qualifications, the quicker I'll get a job and start earning. Nevertheless, these inconveniences would be an inevitable part of travelling and would be greatly outweighed by the other advantages.

In my opinion, starting work and making money is one of the most important things in life. On the other hand, I could end up suffering from culture shock, homesickness and some strange tropical diseases. Furthermore, if I spent a year travelling, I would learn more about the world. Now, where's my nearest travel agency?

Using the key words and expressions in italic from the last exercise, present an argument for one of the following issues: 1. A government's main priority is to provide education for its people. The only way to save the environment is for governments to impose strict quotas on the energy we use for example, by restricting car ownership, limiting the water we use. Satisfaction in your job is more important than the money you earn. Living in a town or city is better than living in the countryside. It is our responsibility to help or look after those less fortunate than ourselves for example, the homeless, the mentally ill.

The two machines considerably. One has an electric motor, the other runs on oil. A differ B. The in weather between the north and the south of the country is very noticeable. Many people cannot between lemon juice and lime juice. Children must be taught to between right and wrong. There is a between being interested in politics and joining a political party. Can you tell the difference 3. The management must not A. Asia covers a huge area. By way of contrast B. By ways of comparing C. By similar means 9.

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The new model of car is very to the old one. Her political opinions are to mine. Some political parties have such similar manifestos that they are difficult to tell apart B. My friends and I enjoy doing many of the same things. In that respect, we have a lot A. There seems to be a large between the number of people employed in service industries, and those employed in the primary sector. British and Australian people share the same language, but in other respects they are as different as chalk and cheese A.

Britain's economy is largely based on its industry, a few hundred years ago it was an agrarian country. I3uB5 Location A. Look at this diagram and complete the sentences opposite using the expressions listed below. In some cases, more than one answer is possible. How well do you know your country? Write the name of a city, town, village or island which. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. However, the words and expressions have all been put into the wrong sentence.

Put them into their correct sentence. Move the verbs into the right sentences. His salary is merged to the cost of living, and increases on an annual basis. To get a better finish, he swallowed up the two paints together. The firm integrated with its main competitor in the battle to win more customers. The suggestions from all the committees were took over into the main proposal.

The immigrants faced hostility when they were first incorporated into the community. A lot of students had problems before they amalgamated into college life. When the large international college got together the smaller school, a lot of people lost their jobs. The students linked one evening and decided to protest about their situation.

A large international company assimilated our firm last month and started making immediate changes. Move the nouns into the right sentences. The alloy between England and France came close to breaking down many times during the nineteenth century. The synthesis between England and Scotland is over years old. The company has ten directors who provide a blend of different expertise. Brass is a well-known alliance of copper and zinc. Water is a coalition of hydrogen and oxygen. The plan is a unification of several earlier proposals.

The merger of Italy did not occur until the second half of the nineteenth century. The company made its fortune by selling a popular union of coffee. The proposed federation of the Liberal and Labour Parties in the election was cause for much ridicule. As a result of the compound with the other company, Flax International became the largest in its field.

Join the first part of a sentence in the left-hand column with a second part from the right-hand column, using an appropriate expression showing reason or result from the central column. In some cases, more than one of the expressions from the middle is possible. The police asked him his. He failed his exam. A persistent cough. She started haranguing thecrowd,.. He spent the whole weekend revising.

They came in quietly. He refused to lend anyone money. The bank manager refused to lend the company more money. The school was forced to close. What were your. What are the. Stress and overwork can. The army attacked without considering the. He failed to send off his application form and. Riots and street fighting. De-eding through the town. Now complete these sentences with an appropriate expressionfrom the central column of the table above. Panic buying when the stock market crashed. People often do things without considering the The government raised the income tax rate The government raised the income tax rate The government raised the income tax rate When questioned, many racists cannot give a logical towards other racial groups.

The soaring crime rate alarmed the police superintendent and zero-tolerance policing policy. He was arrested The family was forced to economise The fumes from motor traffic Peter Collin Publishing. For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students 1—9oo6—2 their actions.

BUa5 13 Match the sentences in the list below with an appropriate sentence in the list opposite. The underlined expressions in the first list should have a similar meaning to the words or expressions in boldin the second list. I need to have precise information about your new proposals. The plan was unable to go ahead because of a small important detail which is important in order to make something happen. He demanded to know the small, precise and sometimes unimportant details.

When you read a piece of text in the exam, you should read it quickly first to get the general idea. Before you write an essay, you should plan it first and give a broad description without giving much detail. Odd features or details which make something different make the world a more interesting place.

Saying that all seventeen-year-olds take drugs is a bit of a general statement. Many cars have very similar typical features. The huge rise in computer sales is a good example of the direction in which technology is heading. Normally, most students sitting the exam manage to pass with a good grade. The new library shows a good example of British architecture at its best.

Before you travel somewhere, it is important to make a detailed list of things that you need to take. French fries with mayonnaise is a dish which is an odd featuge or detail of Belgian cuisine. The article shows as an example his views on the way the company should develop. Please let me have the specifics as soon as possible. It's very frustrating when a minor technicality puts a stop to your plans.

In the same way, kimchii is a concoction of cabbage, chilli and garlic which is peculiar to Korea. You should include full details of your past experience. Once you have an outline, you wilf discover that your work is easier to organise. We must be careful not to make too many generalisations. As far as he was concerned, the minutiae could not be overfooked.

Most manufacturers are aware that these characteristics are what help sell their product. It also provides us with an accurate illustration of the advances we have made in the last twenty years. It illustrates his preference for increased automation. Once you have the gist, it should be easier to understand it.

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It exemplifies the style that is becoming increasingly popular with town planners. In general, the average result is a B or C. For example, it is a peculiarity of the British system that judges and lawyers wear wigs. Write a list of the words and expressions in bold above. Put them into two groups based on whether they are talking about general things or specific things. Try to give examples of each word in a sentence of your own.

For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students Melnqeaon e.

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Iaual5 15 Rearrange the letters in hold to form words which are used to focus attention on something. They all end with the letters -LY. Write the words in the grid underneath. If you do it correctly, you will find another word used to focus attention in the bold vertical box. They reduced pollution pislmy by banning cars from the city centre during the rush hour.

The strange weather at the moment is gaerlly due to El Nifiti We're examining iilmprary the financial aspects of the case. People ilnamy go on holiday in the summer. The library is veceslxuily for the use of students and staff. It's a ilaptarrculy difficult problem which we hope to resolve as soon as possible.

The advertisement is elcifipcsaly aimed at people over Some western countries, otbanly Canada and the United States, have a very high standard of living. Our trip to Poland was rpeluy an educational visit. The word in the in the bold vertical box fits into this sentence: The company trades in the Far East. Divide the words above into two groups, one group being the words which mean only or solely, and one group being the words which mean in most cases, normally or the main reason for something. In most cases, normally or the main only or solely reason for something Peter Collin Publishing.

For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students 1 The words in italics in the following sentences are all used to talk about opinion and belief. However, the words are rammaticall of an adjective, or a verb has been used instead of a noun, etc'. Put the words into their correct form. As far as I am concerning, happiness is more important than money. Scientists are convincingly th t human degradation of the environment is causing thousands of species t0'tb.

Iueinqeaon e. She maintenance that most young people would rather work than go to school. We strongly suspicion that the proposal to develop the computer facilities will not go ahead. Do you disapproval of smoking? I take strong except to people coming late or cancelling appointments at short notice. A lot of people are fanatic about sport in general and football in particular. British health inspectors are obsession about cleanliness in restaurant kitchens.

After years of struggle, the moderation: have gained control of the party.

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He has very conservatism views and disapproves of change. The government are commitment to the struggle to end institutional racism in the police force. She was dedication to her family and would do anything to protect them. They come from a strongly tradition family who still believe in arranged marriages.

Put these nouns and adjectives, which describe people's beliefs, under the most appropriate heading in the table. Can you think of any other words or expressions that you could add? For each of the examples , choose an appropriate verb from the box which best fits the description and can be used in the sample sentence. To cut out part of a document, a computer file, etc. To stop your hard disk becoming too full, you should programmes. The new government bill seeks to the existing legislation. To discourage someone from doing something.

The threat of severe punishment didn't the thieves from striking again. To persuade someone not to do something. The college tries to for them. The committee decided to premises. The military government attempted to arresting its leaders. The Cornucopian government decided to relations with Utopia. To refuse something which is offered. You should never a good job when it's offered to you. To decide not to support or be part of a project or activity after you have agreed to do so.

We decided to when we discovered the company was in financial difficulty. To state that something is not correct. Before his trial, his lawyer advised him to embezzling company funds. To stop something which has been planned. There is no refund if you date of the departure.

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He applied for a judicial review to the verdict. To stop doing something that you have done for quite a long time. You should smoking if you want to feel healthier. To stop something which has been going on for a long time. They agreed to their long-standing dispute. To take something away. I would be grateful if you would my name from your mailing list. Time A. Use the time clauses in the boxes to complete the sentences.

Pay particular attention to the words that come before or after the time clause.


Part 1: One action or situation occurring before another action or situation prior to 0 previously 0 earlier 0 formerly I precede 0 by the time 1. A sudden drop in temperature will usually a blizzard. It was my first trip on an aeroplane. I'd always gone by train. The Prime Minister made a speech praising charity organisations working in Mozambique. He finished the speech with a word of praise for the police. I the sun came out and shone down on the assembled crowd of happy supporters.

The minister continued speaking. The Klondike gold rush lasted from to Look at these words and expressions and decide if we usually use them to talk about 1 the past, 2 the past leading to the present, 3 the present or 4 the future. Try to write a sentence for each one. Iaua5 19 The words in the box describe the actions of the things in Match each action with the thing it describes.

The planet Earth moving round on its axis. A washing machine in its final stage of a wash. The moon moving around the Earth. A house slowly sinking into soft ground. Water slowly being converted into vapour. Cooking fat becoming solid on an unwashed plate. Traffic moving smoothly along a motorway. Water changing from a liquid to a solid because of the cold. Glass changing from a solid to a liquid in very high heat.

A loose wheel on a car. Gas coming out of a faulty valve. A rubber ball hitting the ground and going back into the air. Loose windows in a window frame when a large vehicle passes nearby. The population of a town becoming bigger. A T-shirt which has been washed so often it has lost its colour. The sun coming up in the morning. The sun going down in the evening. A wheel on a slow-moving train. Traffic lights going from red to amber to green. Cliffs being slowly destroyed by the sea.

Documents being laid out on a table. A wide river winding through the countryside. The sun turning people on a beach bright red. An incense stick in the entrance to a temple. A lump of dry earth being rubbed between somebody's fingers. Cold metal as it gets hotter. Hot metal as it gets cooler.

A piece of elastic being pulled so that it becomes longer. A window being hit by a stone so that a long, thin break is formed. Coffee falling out of a cup by mistake. A bomb suddenly blowing up. An alarm clock suddenly going off. A boat going to the bottom of a river.

Dead fish lying on the surface of a polluted lake. A volcano throwing out lava and ash. Orders for a new product arriving at a company very slowly. Several of the words in the box above can have more than one meaning. Use your dictionary to check which ones, then complete these sentences below with an appropriate word. You will need to change the form of some of the words. The queues for the embassy were so long they all the way down the street. The government decided that the best economic course would be to let the dollar 4.

Prices have been steadily all year. The light from the torch began to as the batteries ran out. The twig loudly as he stood on it. The discussion around the problem of student accommodation. The doctor his broken arm. The car out of control on the icy road. For reference.

Look at the words and expressions in the box and decide if they have a positive connotation for example, they tell us that somebody likes something or a negative connotation for example, they tell us that somebody dislikes something. Now look at these pairs of sentences. Sometimes, both sentences are correct, sometimes one of them is wrong for example, the construction is wrong or it does not sound natural. Decide which ones. It was well-known that he was loathed by the other teachers. It was well-known that the other teachers loathed him.

Sometimes I yearn for some time on my own. Sometimes some time on my own is yearned for. Sport is passionate about by a lot of people. A lot of people are passionate about sport. Animals are quite fond of by British people. British people are quite fond of animals. The first time I visited Venice, I was captivated by the city. The first time I visited Venice, the city captivated me. Going to the cinema tonight is fancied by me. I fancy going to the cinema tonight.

From a young age, the idea of travelling was keen on me. From a young age I was keen on the idea of travelling. I look forward to hearing from you soon. To hearing from you soon I look forward. It is a well-known fact that students dread exams. It is a well-known fact that exams are dreaded by students. O For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students P Most children long for the long summer holiday to arrive.

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  4. The long summer holiday is longed for by most children. His sense of humour is appealed to by watching other people suffer. Watching other people suffer appeals to his sense of humour. Racism is really detested by me. I really detest racism. A lot of people cannot stand the long British winters. The long British winters cannot be stood by a lot of people. The idea of living in a cold country repels me. I am repelled by the idea of living in a cold country. She was attracted to the tall, handsome man who had helped her.

    The tall, handsome man who had helped her attracted her. I have always been fascinated by information technology. Information technology has always fascinated me. Were you tempted by his offer of a job in Australia? Did his offer of a job in Australia tempt you? His mannerisms and habits disgusted me. I was disgusted by his mannerisms and habits. Bigoted, arrogant people revolt me. I am revolted by bigoted, arrogant people. Getting up early in the morning cannot be born by me. One thing I cannot bear is getting up early in the morning.

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    For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students lO ii. Look at sentences and decide if the explanation which follows each one is true or false. Use the words and expressions in bold to help you decide. During the exam, a pencil and eraser are required. The people organising the exam will provide you with a pencil and an eraser. Parents can be made liable for their children's debts. Parents may be legally responsible for the money their children owe. He was obliged to pay back the money that he had won. He had the choice whether or not to pay back the money that he had won.

    Students doing holiday jobs are exempt from paying income tax. Students doing holiday jobs pay a smaller amount of income tax than other people. The United Nations voted to impose mandatory sanctions on the country. The United Nations imposed legally-binding sanctions which had to be obeyed by everyone, without exception. The doctors forced him to stop smoking. The doctors asked him to stop smoking. It was an emergency and she pressed the red button; there was no alternative.

    Classes on Wednesday afternoons are optional. It is necessary to attend classes on Wednesday afternoons. It is compulsory to wear a crash helmet on a motorcycle. It is your choice whether or not to wear a crash helmet when you ride a motorcycle. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word or expression from the exercise above. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. Children's clothes are Visitors to the country are to declare any excess tobacco or alcohol imports to the customs otficer. I'm afraid I have but to resign from the committee. If you are caught speeding, you will be the payment of the fine.

    Attendance at all classes is , otherwise you may not get a certificate at the end of the course. Many retired people do work in their local community. In some countries, there is a death sentence for all drug traffickers. For visitors to Britain from outside the European Union, a visa may be He said he was innocent, but the police him to confess.

    Most new cars come with Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Match the first part of each sentence in the left-hand column with its second part in the right-hand column using an appropriate word from the central column. These words should collocate with the underlined words in the right-hand column. In most cases, it is possible to use the words in the central column with more than one sentence. The two warring countries managed to.

    During his first year as President he managed to. The company couldn't afford to move to new premises but were able to. He worked hard at his job and was soon able to. The country badly needed to W In elg years increase its overall standard of living and attempted to. Many people want to be rich but few. I have a lot of plans, and one of them is to. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word or expression from A, B or C. The People's Foundation Party decided to its plans to establish a coalition government with the Democratic Liberal Party.

    For reference, see the English Dictionary for Students lueinqeaon e. Iaual5 25 u Complete sentences with an appropriate word from the box. The law ensures that respect the privacy of the people who live in their houses. Private car were hit the hardest when tax on petrol was increased. The price of commercial has almost doubled in the last four years. When the recession hit, he was forced to sell his Z50—acre Many families lost all their when the river flooded. Put your in the locker and give the key to the receptionist. We will need to relinquish the offices when the runs out at the end of the year.

    A lot of people lost their homes when the interest rate rose so much they were unable to pay off their The law does little to protect families who are thrown out of their homes because they are unable to pay the Everybody is being asked to make a to help the victims of the disaster. The words in bold have been put into the wrong sentences. Decide which sentences they should belong in. VERBS 1. Banks will refuse to rent money to anyone without sufficient collateral. If you want to contribute a room in the centre of the city, you should be prepared to pay a lot of money.

    The best way to see the country is to provide a car from an agency for a couple of weeks. Companies allocate from banks to finance their business. It is not only the wealthy who provide for money to charities.

    It is our responsibility to leave our parents when they get old. During your IELTS preparation, try covering up words in a news article and guessing what the right part of speech would be for the missing word. You should at least write something, especially for questions with multiple choice options. That way, you have a chance of getting some points. You only have 20 minutes to read and answer questions for each text. This can feel like a very short time to many test takers. So, do not spend too much time on a difficult question!

    If you cannot find the answer within one minute, leave it and move on to the next question.

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    If there is some time left at the end of the section, return to it. If there is no time left, then just choose some answer intuitively. You cannot take time from other questions. While you are trying to answer the difficult question, you lose precious time that can be spent on simpler ones.

    Task 5 of the reading section for both the academic and general training exams is to match a heading to the section of the text it is referring to. This is usually pretty difficult and it is tempting to complete this text while you read. However, it is smarter to first read the text completely, then choose the headings. You cannot find the necessary headings if you do not know what the whole text is about—you will just get confused.

    You will also probably choose some headings that are not meant to be used at all there are often more headings provided than you will actually need. If you read the whole text first it is easy to eliminate get rid of the extra headings. Remember, if you do not specifically address the topic of your essay, then you will automatically lose points for the task! When you write an essay, ask yourself constantly whether you are addressing the topic specified in the writing prompt. An essay is not a dialogue consisting of questions and answers. Instead, an essay should provide your opinion and your reasoning for it.

    Plus, someone who writes a question in the introduction often forgets to actually give the answer in the essay! Instead of a question, make a strong sentence in the affirmative form. For both the academic and general training IELTS writing sections, you will be expected to support your writing with evidence, facts and examples. In the first writing task of the academic test, you will even have some factual data to look at and describe in your writing.

    You will be asked to describe data, and you should be careful about how you do so. Be sure to name specific indicators when you are writing about the data. France cannot rise! It is not a balloon! Only the indicator can rise or fall. Students who write essays on the academic IELTS exam often shorten words or insert some colloquial speech. But for this test, all writing should be in a formal style.

    Do not use contractions e. There are many substitute words that will help you raise your scores for the Lexical Resource the range of vocabulary you use on the test. You can also start preparing for this now by avoiding informal language in your everyday English communication. Take slang and contractions out of your emails, texts and social media posts, just for now. You will thank yourself on test day!

    Memorize these grammatical structures! For example:. These words spoil the impression of you. Your speech should be smooth and your vocabulary should be strong and diverse. Therefore, when you prepare and practice before taking the official exam, use a voice recorder.

    Listen to what you have said afterwards and note all the filler words. Then record it again and try to remove all the fillers. In Speaking Part 2, you will be given a card with a question. You have one minute to prepare your answer with a pencil and paper. Do not try to write down your whole answer just so you can speak it afterwards. That is not going to work! You have only one minute to prepare. During this minute you will have time to read the task on the card and make a basic plan. If you try to write a full answer you will never have enough time to think about the full topic.

    The speaking section is a conversation, so do not be shy to look into the eyes of the interviewer. I am not saying that you should stare at the person without blinking… but always make eye contact from time to time. That is a sign of courtesy and confidence and it will make a better impression on your interviewer. All the websites contain reliable information from official sources and from real examiners. Make sure you focus on common mistakes, take practice tests and relax—with the right preparation, you will be fine! If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to learn English with real-world videos.

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