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By the s, a significant number of machine translation engines which Brown et. al () proposed the use of statistical methods in Machine Translations. parse tree into a target-language string by applying stochastic operations . Once both finish, the uni-directional encoder layers start computing .

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The first step in the preregulatory phase should involve a thorough review and understanding of pertinent existing regulations, looking for those that might be blocking innovation, are outdated, or are duplicative. By current state, we refer to the whole ecosystem of regulation that could apply: from vertical service or sector regulation, for example, for motor vehicles; to convergent regulation where multiple sectors are involved; to lateral regulation such as employment or business licensing.

A Deloitte analysis of the US Code of Federal Regulations found that 68 percent of federal regulations have never been updated see figure 3. A retrospective review forces regulators to evaluate whether alternatives to regulation or adjustments to current rules could adequately address the perceived problem. This includes cutting the number of regulations in its portfolio by one-third, plans to slash the number of laws it administers from 90 to 43, and an update of all existing laws to conform to the digital age.

How can regulators avoid the too fast or too slow problem? A number of the principles outlined in the next section of the paper particularly principles one and two, adaptive regulation, and regulatory sandboxes are designed to help answer the when question by both bringing regulators closer to the technological innovations while also shifting to a more agile regulatory model. A wide variety of potential approaches exist between heavy, precautionary regulation on one end of the spectrum and little to no regulation on the other end see figure 2.

Consider regulations pertaining to unmanned aerial systems UAS , or drones. Governments have increasingly opted for one of two paradigms in building regulatory systems: UAS Allowance broader permissiveness of UAS usage or UAS restriction usage permitted only within specific limits.

The same is increasingly true for innovation.


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Innovators can, and increasingly will, move to those countries and continents that provide a legal and regulatory environment more hospitable to entrepreneurial activity. We have already seen this scenario play out with genetic testing, unmanned aerial systems, autonomous vehicles, and the sharing economy. Rapid change, pivoting business models, and experimentation are hallmarks of technology-driven businesses—but are rarely the norm in regulation.

Traditionally, regulators conceptualize new rules and regulations in response to market developments or new legislation. Next, they spend months or years drafting rules and presenting a first draft for public comment. Finally, they examine these comments—and there can be tens of thousands or even millions of them—and change the proposed draft accordingly. Adaptive approaches to regulation, on the other hand, rely more on trial and error and co-design of regulation and standards; they also have faster feedback loops.

More rapid feedback loops allow regulators to evaluate policies against set standards, feeding inputs into revising regulations. Regulatory agencies have a number of tools to seek such feedback: setting up policy labs, creating regulatory sandboxes detailed in the next section , crowdsourcing policymaking, and providing representation to industry in the governance process via self-regulatory and private standard-setting bodies. Soft law mechanisms—instruments or arrangements that create substantive expectations that are not directly enforceable—offer another tool for shifting to more adaptive regulation.

Properties of Technology

While not legally binding, soft law instruments have several advantages over formal regulation in the arena of emerging technologies. They allow regulators to adapt quickly to changes in technology and business models, and to address issues as they arise without stifling innovation. One way regulators can apply soft law is to define the scope of issues to be addressed and ask industry to develop its own standards and codes of conduct in response. Finnish officials recognized the need to reform their transport regulations to support their vision of mobility-as-a-service MaaS , which considers transportation as an integrated system of different services.

Hence, the country decided not to reform or revise separate laws on taxis, public transport, roads, or the transport of goods but instead to create a new integrated transportation code. The aim is to deregulate existing transport while building the foundations for MaaS. Accelerators are designed to speed up innovation. They often involve partnerships with private companies, academic institutions, and other organizations that can provide expertise in certain areas. Sandboxes are controlled environments allowing innovators to test products, services, or new business models without having to follow all the standard regulations see figure 5.

The Canadian Securities Administrators CSA , for example, launched a regulatory sandbox that provides time-limited relaxation from certain regulatory requirements placed on startups. Impak will be allowed to remain in the sandbox for two years. These include operations over the heads of people, beyond the line of sight, and at night. Sandbox approaches are intended to help regulators better understand new technologies and work collaboratively with industry players to develop appropriate rules and regulations for emerging products, services, and business models.

Sandboxes are not without their detractors who worry regulators might get too close to the startups and try to prop them up if they stumble in the market. Some of the companies in your greenhouse might fail, just like some plants in your garden die; others will grow and flourish, but there's full transparency, with some protection. The United Kingdom has been a pioneer in the use of accelerators and sandboxes as part of the regulatory process.

This sandbox allows businesses to test innovative products and services in a safe, live environment, with the appropriate consumer safeguards, and, when appropriate, is exempt from some regulatory environments. Traditionally, regulations have tended to be prescriptive and focused on inputs. When the focus of regulation shifts from inputs to outcomes, the way government intervenes in markets changes. This shift can create operational efficiencies for regulators and greater freedom for innovators. Outcome-based regulation specifies required outcomes or objectives rather than defining the way in which they must be achieved.

This model of regulation offers businesses and individuals more freedom to choose their way of complying with the law. Consider three different ways of structuring UAS regulations:. For such connections to happen, innovators need room to innovate. Outcome-based regulation can provide the leeway needed to experiment. Australia has developed performance-based guidelines for autonomous vehicles. Paul Retter, NTC chief executive, believes multiple issues should be addressed before making autonomous vehicle a reality on the road.

Industry stakeholders also are evaluating performance-based standards. The Australian Automobile Association suggests that standards for automated vehicles should be performance-based and technology-agnostic, and that the responsible parties and processes for certifying vehicle modifications should be clearly identified and unambiguous. Speed to market is imperative for businesses, especially startups with business models predicated on emerging technologies.

Speed to market also can make digital services and products more effective. As they are used, they usually collect data on their users. With the help of advanced analytics and, in many cases, AI, the data can then be analyzed to detect new patterns and trends, information that can make the product more accurate, safe, effective, and personalized. Because of this iterative factor, the sooner safe and effective products get to the market, the better.

One way to accelerate the approval of business models based on emerging technologies would be to draw inspiration from the precheck systems for airline travel used in many countries. These work by using data to certify low-risk flyers, who then receive a lower level of scrutiny and inspection. A similar approach could be used to help expedite approvals of new business models. It would allow certain companies to go through a streamlined and predictable approval process, contingent on their providing access to key information.

Qualification is based on their Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration rating and data on history of roadside inspections. It can be extended to a dynamic, regulatory approach, based on real-time data flows between companies and their regulators. Already, many regulatory bodies, from the US Securities and Exchange Commission to the European Commission, have established such data flows with industry. The resulting data could then be analyzed and compared with regulations or expected outcomes to decide whether a firm is in compliance.

Firms in compliance would be listed as safe, and if not, the data systems could produce a set of action items to meet the standard, or, in the case of a more serious violation, issue reprimands or penalties such as removal from the safe list. Regulators also can use open data to complement their own data or for independent inspection.

In the case of digital health software, a regulator could monitor products through publicly available data on software bugs and error reports, customer feedback, software updates, app store information, social media, and GitHub. Enforcement can become dynamic and reviewing and monitoring can be built into the system.

Consider an experiment in the city of Boston.

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To more effectively identify restaurants in need of regulatory attention, the city collaborated with Yelp and Harvard Business School to sponsor an open competition to develop an algorithm that could predict health code violations. More than contestants participated, using restaurant inspection data and years of Yelp reviews. Yet another form of risk-based regulation could lower the high entry cost of regulatory certification. Only after that company grew and began selling its products more widely would it encounter a more thorough investigation.

Emerging Digital Spaces in Contemporary Society: Properties of Technology

For certain digital health products, the FDA already uses risk-based approaches that balance potential risks with patient benefits. As part of its Digital Health Innovation Action Plan, the FDA created a Pre-Cert pilot program for eligible digital health developers that demonstrate a culture of quality and organizational excellence based on objective criteria—for example, excelling in software design, development, and testing. The idea behind this is to allow the FDA to accelerate time to market for lower-risk health products and focus its resources on those posing greater potential risks to patients.

Precertified developers could market lower-risk devices without additional FDA review, or with a simpler premarket review. But precertification is just one part of the model; the FDA intends to monitor the performance of these companies continuously, with real-world data. Scorecards and corresponding Pre-Cert levels could go up or down based on performance and effectiveness data.

If scores fall below a defined threshold, the organization might lose certain benefits, such as expedited reviews for less-risky products or eligibility for Pre-Cert status until it can resolve any product issues through a new assessment. Align regulation nationally and internationally by engaging a broader set of players across the ecosystem. A recent global survey of more than experts and leaders of financial institutions indicated that regulatory divergence —inconsistent regulations across different nations—costs financial institutions from 5 percent to 10 percent of their annual revenue.

As the digital economy expands, with new business models, technologies, products, and services, regulators around the world can benefit from collaborative approaches such as co-regulation, self-regulation, and international coordination. Through multi-stakeholder meetings that produce concrete policy guidance and voluntary standards, regulators and firms as well as other interested parties can be engaged in the process. This ecosystem approach —when multiple regulators from different nations collaborate with one other and with those being regulated—can encourage innovation while protecting consumers from potential fraud or safety concerns.

In this approach, private, standard-setting bodies and self-regulatory organizations also have key roles to play in facilitating collaboration between innovators and regulators. Interactive PR practices include the use of social media [34] to reach a mass audience of online social network users. With the rise of the Internet, many new career paths were created. Before the rise, many technical jobs were seen as nerdy. The Internet led to creative work that was seen as laid-back and diverse amongst sex, race, and sexual orientation.

Web design, gaming design, webcasting, blogging, and animation are all creative career paths that came with this rise. At first glance, the field of new media may seem hip, cool, creative and relaxed. What many don't realize is that working in this field is tiresome.

Emerging Digital Spaces in Contemporary Society

Many of the people that work in this field don't have steady jobs. Work in this field has become project-based. Individuals work project to project for different companies. Most people are not working on one project or contract, but multiple ones at the same time. Despite working on numerous projects, people in this industry receive low payments, which is highly contrasted with the techy millionaire stereotype. It may seem as a carefree life from the outside, but it is not.

Gartner Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends 2019

New media workers work long hours for little pay and spend up to 20 hours a week looking for new projects to work on. The ideology of new media careers as an egalitarian and stress-free environment is a myth. It is a game of networking and thriving at what you are capable of. Many workers face job instability. Inequality within this field exists due to the informality and flexibility of this career path. Within the Industry, many Companies have emerged or transformed to adapt to the fast moving exciting opportunities that new media offers. Based on nationally representative data, a study conducted by Kaiser Family Foundation in five-year intervals in —99, —04, and —09 found that with technology allowing nearly hour media access, the amount of time young people spend with entertainment media has risen dramatically, especially among Black and Hispanic youth.

The development of the new digital media demands a new educational model by parents and educators. The parental mediation become a way to manage the children's experiences with Internet, chat, videogames and social network. A recent trend in internet is Youtubers Generation.

Youtubers are young people who offer free video in their personal channel on YouTube. There are videos on games, fashion, food, cinema and music, where they offers tutorial or comments. The role of cellular phones, such as the iPhone , has created the inability to be in social isolation , and the potential of ruining relationships.

The iPhone activates the insular cortex of the brain, which is associated with feelings of love. People show similar feelings to their phones as they would to their friends, family and loved ones. Countless people spend more time on their phones, while in the presence of other people than spending time with the people in the same room or class. In trying to determine the impact of new media on political campaigning and electioneering, the existing research has tried to examine whether new media supplants conventional media.

Television is still the dominant news source, but new media's reach is growing. What is known is that new media has had a significant impact on elections and what began in the presidential campaign established new standards for how campaigns would be run. Since then, campaigns also have their outreach methods by developing targeted messages for specific audiences that can be reached via different social media platforms.

Both parties have specific digital media strategies designed for voter outreach.

Additionally, their websites are socially connected, engaging voters before, during, and after elections. Email and text messages are also regularly sent to supporters encouraging them to donate and get involved. This is often a multi-faceted approach that combines new and old media forms to create highly specialized strategies. This allows them to reach wider audiences, but also to target very specific subsets of the electorate.

They are able to tap into polling data and in some cases harness the analytics of the traffic and profiles on various social media outlets to get real-time data about the kinds of engagement that is needed and the kinds of messages that are successful or unsuccessful. They focus on areas such as "attentiveness, knowledge, attitudes, orientations, and engagement" Owen, In references a vast body of research, Owen points out that older studies were mixed, while "newer research reveals more consistent evidence of information gain". Some of that research has shown that there is a connection between the amount and degree of voter engagement and turnout Owen, However, new media may not have overwhelming effects on either of those.

Other research is tending toward the idea that new media has reinforcing effect, that rather than completely altering, by increasing involvement, it "imitates the established pattern of political participation " Nam, After analyzing the Citizenship Involvement Democracy survey, Nam found that "the internet plays a dual role in mobilizing political participation by people not normally politically involved, as well as reinforcing existing offline participation.

Towner found, in his survey of college students, that attention to new media increases offline and online political participation particularly for young people. His research shows that the prevalence of online media boosts participation and engagement. His work suggests that "it seems that online sources that facilitate political involvement, communication, and mobilization, particularly campaign websites, social media, and blogs, are the most important for offline political participation among young people".

Emerging Digital Spaces in Contemporary Society | SpringerLink

In citing the work of several researchers, Halpern and Gibbs define deliberation to be "the performance of a set of communicative behaviors that promote thorough discussion. The work of Halpern and Gibbs "suggest that although social media may not provide a forum for intensive or in-depth policy debate, it nevertheless provides a deliberative space to discuss and encourage political participation, both directly and indirectly". Their work goes a step beyond that as well though because it shows that some social media sites foster a more robust political debate than do others such as Facebook which includes highly personal and identifiable access to information about users alongside any comments they may post on political topics.

This is in contrast to sites like YouTube whose comments are often posted anonymously. Due to the popularity of new media, social media websites SMWs like Facebook and Twitter are becoming increasingly popular among researchers Moreno, Goniu, Moreno, Diekema, Some scholars e. As a consequence, Moreno et al. One of the major issues for observational research is whether a particular project is considered to involve human subjects.

Research may also be exempt if the disclosure of participant responses outside the realm of the published research does not subject the participant to civic or criminal liability, damage the participant's reputation, employability or financial standing.

Many profiles on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Twitter are public and researchers are free to use that data for observational research. Users have the ability to change their privacy settings on most social media websites. Facebook, for example, provides users with the ability to restrict who sees their posts through specific privacy settings. Historically, Institutional Review Boards considered such websites to be private, [50] although newer websites like YouTube call this practice into question.

According to Romano et al. Because researchers have limited ways of accessing this data, this could mean that a researcher sends a Facebook user a friend request, or follows a user on Twitter in order to gain access to potentially protected tweets pg. While it could be argued that such actions would violate a social media user's expectation of privacy, Ellison, Steinfield and Lampe argued that actions like "friending" or "following" an individual on social media constitutes a "loose tie" relationship and therefore not sufficient to establish a reasonable expectation of privacy since individuals often have friends or followers they have never even met.

Because research on social media occurs online, it is difficult for researchers to observe participant reactions to the informed consent process. For example, when collecting information about activities that are potentially illegal, or recruiting participants from stigmatized populations, this lack of physical proximity could potentially negatively impact the informed consent process.

While information provided over the internet might be perceived as lower risk, studies that publish direct quotes from study participants might expose them to the risk of being identified via a Google search [50]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Forms of media native to computers.

Not to be confused with News media. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. Digital Audio Production. Formerly COMM : A comprehensive introduction to the principles and techniques of audio production.

Instructions in the use of portable audio equipment as well as in production and post-production skills. A hands- on approach augmented with readings and listening to audio material. Topics in Digital Production. An examination of radio and television from cultural, aesthetic and historical perspectives. The course considers how broadcasting has affected contemporary culture and emerged as the most prominent maker of popular images. Fashion and Digital Media.

This course examines what happens when one of the oldest forms of communication, fashion, meets up with the newest, digital media. Digital media has reconfigured the fashion industry: bloggers sit alongside famous magazine editors at Fashion Shows, the retail industry collapses as online shopping takes off, platforms such as Instagram reconfigure social status and power. While digital media creates new jobs, communities, celebrities, status and power in the fashion world, it also maintains and creates new social inequalities.

We will examine the relationship between fashion and digital media from three vantage points: globally, locally, and personally. Digital Property: Rights, Policies, and Practice. This course will provide a general overview of copyright law specific to its impact on media and entertainment institutions, online platforms, and distribution channels.

The course will examine copyright subject matter, ownership, duration, rights, licensing, infringement, and fair uses with a focus, in particular, on issue-identification and other analytical skills for professionals in practice. Games are everywhere and over million Americans play them regularly on tabletops and electronic devices across the county. Their prevalence has prompted the medium as a space for expression, art, and meaning-making. Moving beyond the notion of simple entertainment games are creating provocative experiences to promote change or understanding.

This course emphasizes exploration and critical thinking as we discover how games are designed to address issues such as social justice, gender representation, behavioral change, and education. Through analyzing game artifacts and engaging in creative exercises, students will be able to think critically about games and how they are designed. Students will apply this literacy into their own game projects. This course is open to anyone who is interested in games and their possibilities. Introduction to Game Narrative. The rise of interactive experiences, ushered in by improved digital technologies, has coincided with the exponential growth of the video game industry over the past two decades.

An understanding of game mechanics has become fundamental to operating in the digital media landscape. The practice of game narratives is a new aspect of writing for digital media, one that helps to bridge storytelling formats from television to experience design to journalism. Game Narratives focuses on games that include a strong storytelling component, providing the opportunity to do interdisciplinary work.

This course introduces students to the design of narrative games, including narrative and game design strategies. There will be a balance of story and game development. The course uses the adventure game genre as a gateway to the general strategies used to incorporate narrative in games. Social History of Communication and Technology. Formerly COMM : Explores theoretical and critical perspectives on technology, with special emphasis on the impact of technology on communication, culture and consciousness; the symbolic component of technology; the ecology of media; the process of technological innovation and the diffusion of innovations; the role of media and culture in the creation of a technical society.

Writing for Online Media. From Web sites to Web logs, wikis to social media, the Internet continues to evolve and offer opportunities for communicators in various fields. Students will create their own blog; learn about cyber-journalism; apply their writing skills toward business, politics, art, or personal expression; and explore how marketing, public relations, Web design, and other factors impact writing style in New Media. Projects in Digital Video. Students will explore the possibilities of digital video and evolve both conceptually and technically through critiques, tutorials, readings, discussion and practice.

Students will be challenged to discover and shape concepts of interest, experiment, explore narratives, plan and execute, while developing strategies for effective communication through moving image and sound. Resulting work can be delivered as video for the screen, installation or performance. Students are challenged to find appropriate outlets for their works such as festival, public space, broadcast, screening, gallery, etc. This course is at the intermediate level.

Students should enter with working knowledge of Final Cut Pro X or another similar video editing software garnered through a previous course in digital video or permission of instructor. Digital Video Production II. Students will devote the semester to developing a narrative or documentary project of their choosing from concept to post-production. This workshop will allow students to evolve technically and conceptually through screenings, critiques, tutorials, readings, and practice.

Nerds, Geeks, and Bros.. We will examine the historical and cultural shifts that changed computer work from a feminine job to a masculine one. From examinations of popular culture, such as movies, students will trace how the nerd figure became a new hero. The nerd hero is overwhelmingly male and white and represents shifts in gender and racial politics. Students will read from history, social science, communications, as well as study popular media such as movies, television, and advertisements.

Through an investigation into the nerd, geek, and bro figures, students will see how women and minorities innovations have been left out of history, as well as left out of the industry.