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Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests, Volume II file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests, Volume II book. Happy reading Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests, Volume II Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests, Volume II at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests, Volume II Pocket Guide.

The tail-suspension test is a valuable tool in drug discovery for high-throughput screening of prospective antidepressant compounds.

Original Research ARTICLE

Here, we describe the details required for implementation of this test with additional emphasis on potential problems that may occur and how to avoid them. Specifically, we prevent tail climbing behaviors by passing mouse tails through a small plastic cylinder prior to suspension. Finally, we detail how to manually score the behaviors that are manifested in this test. The tail-suspension test TST involves suspending mice above the ground by their tails. At the most basic level, the procedure only requires a suspension bar or shelf ledge, and tape.

However, the experimenter should consider the use of a background that provides optimal contrast. Additionally, it is prudent to take steps to prevent mice from observing other animals that are being tested. In our laboratory, we use specially manufactured tail suspension boxes Four-Hour Day, Baltimore MD , made of plastic with the dimensions 55 height X 60 width X In order to prevent animals from observing or interacting each other, each mouse is suspended within its own three-walled rectangular compartment 55 height X 15 width X The mouse is suspended in the middle of this compartment and the width and depth are sufficiently sized so that the mouse cannot make contact with the walls.

In this setting, the approximate distance between the mouse's nose and the apparatus floor is cm. There are four such identical compartments in the apparatus allowing us to test four mice at a time. An aluminum suspension bar 1 cm. The dimensions that we use in our laboratory should be regarded as a general reference. For example, the size of individual compartments of the tail-suspension box can be increased if a large outbred mouse strain e. CD-1 is used. At the bottom of each compartment we place a detachable aluminum tray that collects feces or urine from the animals.

We use a dark grey box for albino animals and a cream colored box for mice of other coat colors. This arrangement gives us better contrast and therefore more reliable behavioral scoring of the test. However, the tape should not be excessively sticky since at the end of the session it will be removed from the tail. We cut 17 cm fragments of tape and place a mark 2 cm from one end.

CBT Techniques for Anxiety Disorders

This 2 cm portion was used for attaching the tape to the tail, while the remaining 15 cm was used for suspension of the mouse. A video camera and a tripod or other support structure are needed. Since this test usually involves multiple animals being tested at the same time, live scoring will be difficult and is not advised. The video camera should record in high enough resolution to render a quality picture that will be used later for behavioral scoring.


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Always make certain that there is sufficient recording memory in the camera before starting the test. We use a video camera that records digitally without the use of physical media i. The noise generator should mask intermittent environmental sounds. The use of a noise generator is particularly recommended in laboratory environments where sudden loud noises can be heard that would potentially startle mice. In our experimental room the ambient noise level without the white noise generator activated is around 60 dB. The total sound level with the white noise generator activated at the location where the TST is conducted is dB.

However, it should be noted that these figures are provided as example only, and each laboratory should select the right noise levels according to their unique environment and circumstances. The suspension box should be wiped thoroughly after each session with a sterilization solution e. MB, Quip Laboratories Inc.

Clear hollow cylinders 4 cm length, 1. These devices can be made in any laboratory with common tools and materials. The overall experimental design should reflect proper counterbalancing between variables specific to your experiment. For example, in our experiments we try to represent each group equally in every TST session i. Also, the positions of mice are rotated in a way such that mice from each treatment group are placed in a different position in each session.

We have used the TST to assess antidepressant-like responses to lithium treatment in various mouse strains Figure 1 3. Experimental details of this experiment are published in Can et al.

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Figure 1. Immobility time in the tail suspension test after chronic lithium administration in five inbred mouse strains. Mice were group housed, four mice per cage. Control animals received identical food without the lithium chloride.

Novelty-suppressed feeding in the mouse — Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

In the other three strains, no statistically significant decrease in immobility time was observed. These data indicate that an antidepressant-like response to chronic lithium treatment is strain dependent as has also been observed with other antidepressant medications Development of the TST by Steru et al. Similar to the forced swim test, in the TST mice are placed in an inescapable but moderately stressful situation.

Lack of escape related behavior is considered immobility. Like the forced swim test, the TST is a test best validated for the evaluation of antidepressant efficacy of drugs, but also used to evaluate the effects of environmental, neurobiological, and genetic manipulations In contrast to the forced swim test, in the TST there is no risk of hypothermia due to submersion in water The experimenters should keep in mind that while the forced swim test and TST are similar prima facie , there are various important differences in their sensitivity and performance and the results of one test may not necessarily be replicated in the other.

For an excellent description of the differences between these two tests see the following references 4,20, Though most antidepressants take weeks to exert clinically significant effects in patients, antidepressants can exert their effects in the TST and forced swim test both following acute and chronic treatments 20,22, However, there are many other behavioral tests used to assess antidepressant-like effects in mice that are generally sensitive to chronic treatment only.

These include chronic unpredictable stress 24 , social defeat stress 25 , and novelty suppressed feeding In addition to its small footprint, low cost and relative ease of setup, automation of data collection in the TST is also possible 9,27, Two main approaches for automation are electro-mechanical measurement systems and video analysis. In the electro-mechanical approach, the animal is suspended from a strain gauge and the movements of the animals are measured e. Med Associates Inc, St.

Another approach is software-based analysis of TST video recordings e. Noldus Inc. However, even with automation, human intervention will still be necessary, since the applied parameters must be adjusted for each new mouse model or strain and the results should be verified by a human observer for quality control purposes. These animals have a propensity toward reaching for and climbing their own tails. Mice that successfully climb their tails have learned that escape is possible. Such mice should therefore be excluded from the analysis, which increases the number of mice required and decreases reliability of the procedure.

In this paper, we detailed a solution to tail-climbing behavior that was developed in our laboratory 2,3. In order to prevent the tail-climbing behavior, we place hollow cylinders around base of the tail of mice. The mice cannot hold onto these cylinders and therefore cannot climb their tails. Kalueff 3. Deacon 4.

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Altimus, Tara A. LeGates, and Samer Hattar 5. Winslow 6. O'Leary and John F. Cryan 8. Walf and Cheryl A. Frye Novelty-Induced Hypophagia Stephanie C. Dulawa Koolhaas, and Frauke Ohl Knapp This increased research parallels a remarkable growth in the use of the laboratory mouse as a tool to understand the biological and genetic basis of mood and anxiety disorders as well as to develop improved treatments.

In Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests, world-renowned researchers provide an overview of behavioral approaches utilized in the characterization of mood and anxiety related behaviors in mice as well as commonly used behavioral assays to assess the potential antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy of novel compounds. As a volume in the successful Neuromethods TM series, the chapters provide authoritative reviews including up-to-date detailed protocols of the most commonly used approaches in the field.

Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests is an ideal resource for scientists actively pursuing or interested in establishing behavioral protocols in their laboratories, while also serving as a reference for those students, scientists, and practitioners who have an interest in better understanding the preclinical behavioral methods used in mood and anxiety research.

Mood Disorders. Disease Models, Animal. Anxiety Disorders. Animal Diseases. In Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests , world-renowned researchers provide an overview of behavioral approaches utilized in the characterization of mood and anxiety related behaviors in mice as well as commonly used behavioral assays to assess the potential antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy of novel compounds. Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests is an ideal resource for scientists actively pursuing or interested in establishing behavioral protocols in their laboratories, while also serving as a reference for those students, scientists, and practitioners who have an interest in better understanding the preclinical behavioral methods used in mood and anxiety research.

Convert currency. Add to Basket. Book Description Humana Press, Condition: New. More information about this seller Contact this seller. Book Description Humana Press Inc. Language: English. Brand new Book. Affecting approximately twenty percent of the world population, mood and anxiety disorders have been the subject of ever-increasing research. In Mood and Anxiety Related Phenotypes in Mice: Characterization Using Behavioral Tests, world-renowned researchers provide an overview of behavioral approaches utilized in the characterization of mood and anxiety related behaviors in mice as well as commonly used behavioral assays to assess the potential antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy of novel compounds.

As a volume in the successful Neuromethods TM series, the chapters provide authoritative reviews including up-to-date detailed protocols of the most commonly used approaches in the field.