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Methods in Molecular Biology, vol Please cite for the well transfection protocol :. Screening for in planta protein-protein interactions combining bimolecular fluorescence complementation with flow cytometry. Plant Methods. Methods Mol Biol Protoplasts isolation from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Location Morgenstelle 32 5. Coordinator Dr.

Kenneth W Berendzen.

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Transformation technicians. The unit offers Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato, tobacco and tomato. Regenaration and cultivation of transformants. Modern plant biotechnologies have been applied to biological systems in Latin America since the late s and in the Caribbean since the early s, mainly through tissue-culture techniques for studying the behaviour of plant cells, isolated tissues and through the study of hormonal and physical effects. Agricultural programmes have been pursued at the same time for the micropropagation of ornamental and horticultural species, mainly in the faculties of agronomy and biology, and subsequently in the institutes of agricultural research.

Biotechnologies have more recently been introduced into livestock and forestry research. In the early stages of applied biotechnology in the region, biological models formed the basis of many undergraduate theses, following extensive postgraduate training in developed countries, largely financed by the respective national scientific and technological programmes such as the Brazilian National Research Council; the National Council for Science and Technology of Mexico and the Colombian Fund for Scientific Research.

Some of the experts trained during this period are now in charge of scientific activities and laboratories in education and research centres and commercial companies.

Plant Tissue Culture: Current Status and Opportunities

Others have been involved in policy decisions affecting biotechnology in some form or other. After more than 20 years of progressive biotechnological research, the Region is undergoing a period of transition in which the more simple tissue-culture techniques have gradually moved from the experimental to the productive stage, mainly for the propagation of ornamental, horticultural and industrial species, and to the adoption of more fundamental techniques of molecular biology and genetics.

There has been a gradual interest in incorporating modern biotechnologies into research and education despite limited funds and personnel.

Furthermore, there has been a gradual acceptance by professionals of biotechnologies as a set of tools to support crop improvement, particularly those involving in the agriculture sector. Surveys and recent publications indicate a wide range of biotechnology developments within the region, from the most orthodox techniques such as plant micropropagation to genetic transformation through recombinant DNA.

This reflects the different technical levels of scientific personnel and the availability of funds, factors that are generally conditioned by support policy for science and technology. This paper aims to examine the current situation and the future outlook of biotechnological activities in the region, and to examine their present and potential uses for agriculture and forestry.

Plant Cell Culture Protocols

Applications of modern biotechnologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. On the other hand, there are also. Moreover, limited funds for the development of biotechnologies have resulted in duplication of effort and have reduced incentives for reaching the critical scientific masses, in terms of salary, keeping up-to-date, publications, scientific meetings, reagents and procurement and maintenance of essential equipment.

The potential of modern biotechnology is also being held back by insufficient research into strategic disciplines such as genetics and molecular biology, and by inadequate legal and regulatory measures. Biotechnologies in the region are making notable practical contributions to agriculture, and to a less extent to forestry and the livestock sector.

For the reasons mentioned below, biotechnology has focused more on agriculture, as in the developed countries. Plant biotechnologies have been applied mainly to: i the natural fixation of nitrogen by bacteria; ii the micropropagation of elite material; iii the conservation, exchange and use of plant genetic resources; and iv genetic improvement through anther culture, somaclonal variation, protoplast fusion and plant regeneration, and genetic engineering. Livestock activity has focused mainly on: i diagnosing disease and preparing kits; ii in.

Biotechnology has not been applied to forestry to any great extent for technical reasons and because the species involved are perennials with long life cycles. This situation is universal and biotechnological work on woody species is mainly oriented towards research and the development of protocols for the multiplication of conifers and broad-leaved species; the cloning of rapid-growth plus trees e. Eucalyptus hybrids in Brazil ; the search for biochemical markers and the conservation of forest resources.

Although recently there have been significant contributions to genetic engineering in forest species in Latin America, this development has still not been applied.

1. Introduction

Analysis of biotechnologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. A number of surveys and studies have been carried out to determine the role, resources and potential of biotechnology in Latin America and the Caribbean, and to provide a framework to examine potential interinstitutional, regional and international collaboration Sasson, The latter study examined biotechnologies in use; organisms under study; human, physical and financial resources; and major projects in the area. It also reported on institutional plans for the subsequent five years.

These were subsequently considered in the FAO study to determine plant biotechnology progress during the five-year period, though no direct comparison could be made. The survey was based on 95 questionnaires from five geographical areas in the region: the Andes, Brazil, Mexico, the Southern Cone and Central America and the Caribbean.

The survey revealed that some institutions had good potential for developing biotechnology for agriculture. It also brought to light an urgent need for interinstitutional collaboration in research and training, and indicated that agricultural research, development and production needed to be integrated in projects attuned to the needs of each crop or livestock production system.

Plant Cell Culture Protocols | Víctor M. Loyola-Vargas | Springer

The most frequent technologies used in the region were those with the greatest short- and medium-term potential e. The plants most frequently studied were those of greatest agricultural relevance; livestock mainly ruminant research was restricted to embryo transfer and, to a lesser extent, the bioproduction of vaccines; micro-organism studies focused on molecular research; and some limited work was carried out on forest species.

A large proportion of those engaged in biotechnology had a high academic level about 50 percent and a high proportion was engaged in cell research. Another important fact was the need to absorb approximately biotechnologists 40 percent postgraduates within the subsequent five-year period. The general objective was to obtain up-to-date information on plant biotechnology development, application and prospects in different institutions of the region. The survey, which was carried out in person, comprised eight sections, including laboratory status, appropriateness for cooperative programmes and ability to handle advanced biotechnology.

The survey began in October and was completed in January This survey revealed a growing involvement of the private sector 27 percent compared to 11 percent. The public sector accounted for 73 percent of this activity, with 32 percent in research and 40 percent in teaching and research. The heads of laboratory This indicates a greater orientation towards basic biotechnology compared to Roca, Amezsquita and Villalobos, In total, the laboratory staff carried out 1 projects , with mainly involving basic technologies applied to food crops.

As in other studies, publication was taken as an indicator of productivity, since it represents the end-product of scientific research. There were publications in the last three years, representing 0. This very low productivity applies to all disciplines throughout the region. Latin America accounted for only 1. One possible explanation for biotechnology is that 28 percent of the laboratories have been in operation for less than three years and 27 percent make their findings directly available.

However, the Region clearly has a limited tradition of producing scientific articles. This is the result of a number of factors: there are only a few more incentives to publish than not to, and advanced scientific journals in Spanish are few and poorly distributed. This is also supported by the fact that there were theses in the last two years on areas of biotechnology research. It was noted that plant biotechnologies are applied to a wide range of crops, including cereals 8 percent , pulses 4.

A total of 63 percent of the projects carried out in the institutions surveyed involved cell and tissue culture, particularly in micropropagation. There was also a marked interest in genetic engineering and molecular biology which accounted for 8. About this book This fourth edition provides new and updated protocols on plant cell, tissue, and organ cultures.

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